Early maps and sea charts offer a great deal of insight into the past. Prior to the 16th century, mapped depictions of Ireland were part of the culture of other nations. From the 16th century onwards, maps and charts became increasingly more technically sophisticated and accurate with regards to placenames and topography. By the 17th century, the emphasis in mapping had shifted from maps for defence and military campaigns to the plotting of large areas as part of the process of confiscation of land. In addition to maps, a diverse range of charts of Ireland were created from the 16th century onwards. Charts created for defensive purposes often included large scale mapping of ports and anchorages. A comprehensive list of early maps and charts of the Irish coast is provided in Exploring the Maritime Archaeology of Ireland.
The removal of soiling from a building can be achieved using water, chemicals, poultices, lasers, and also mechanical cleaning methods. Mechanical cleaning requires the use of force using hand-held tools such as brushes, sponges, scalpels etc. or with equipment such as vacuums, or dry air-abrasion. Mechanical cleaning can be low-impact, and is often used where water or chemicals are not suitable. However, stone can easily, immediately and permanently be damaged by mechanical cleaning.
Abrasive cleaning systems direct particles onto soiled masonry in a stream of compressed air of between 1.5 and c.7bar. The systems work by Continue reading
Drones, or unmanned aerial vehicles, are useful tools for surveying historic buildings and structures, as well as assisting in diagnosing building failures. Drones can also be useful for archaeological research and of ruined buildings and their surrounding landscape. Drones are small, portable, and able to hover and operate in confined spaces, yet are powerful enough to carry DLSR still and HD/4K video cameras for survey work, as well as lidar and terrestrial scanners. For historic buildings and heritage sites, drones offer high-resolution imagery and data which can be used for monitoring, recording, presentation, interpretative display, surveying, and mapping. Continue reading