Stone in buildings is exposed to natural patterns of weathering, varying urban conditions, a legacy of repair and change, building quirks and outside events that interact in complex in complex and sometimes unpredictable ways to produce new patterns and new rates of stone decay. Stones can also have a ‘memory’ of the legacy of structural and chemical changes it has undergone since before it was quarried – legacies which can explain why stone continues to deteriorate long after air pollution levels have improved. Further, different stones react differently to different stresses, and require different solutions. A necessary part of building the knowledge to make informed decisions to conserve stone buildings is to understand why and where stone decay can and does occur.
The aim of this stone conservation research project was to gather information on the degree of degradation and erosion of stone monuments in the Republic of Ireland dating from the Neolithic through to the nineteenth century. The study examined 112 archaeological monuments in 14 counties, identifying and assessing the most significant forms of decay and impacts to stone monuments based on factual up-to-date information gathered through fieldwork and laboratory analysis. The archaeological monument types dated from the Neolithic to the nineteenth century and included megalithic tombs, cashels, Anglo-Norman castles, medieval tower houses, post-medieval buildings, and ecclesiastical heritage including churches, abbeys, round towers, high crosses and a range of smaller stone monuments including crosses, a cursing stone, leachta and grave slabs.
The most significant results and conclusions of the study are: Continue reading